All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means—for example, electronic, photocopy, recording—without the prior written permission of the publisher. The only exception is brief quotations in printed reviews. It was designed to be used as a handy reference guide before, after, and during counseling sessions. Much of the material in this mini-manual is immediately intelligible even without that knowledge, but it will be used most effectively in conjunction with the above-mentioned volumes.
The helps in the mini-manual are intended to be used in preparation for counseling to stimulate planning and review of progress, to help locate significant passages during a counseling session, and to help discover causes of failure. Although they were not designed as study guides, many have found them helpful for such purposes. In the sections titled Data Gathering pp. The counseling outlines may be used for review and preparation, but also will be a helpful guide to counselors in discussing particular subjects during the actual counseling process.
Some have used the outlines in lecturing and preaching. The counselor should keep in mind that the outlines have been simplified for handy reference and therefore, do not cover any topic exhaustively. I wish to express my appreciation to Baker Book House for suggesting that these helps might be published separately. Check motivation ultimately it must be loving obedience: I will do it because God says so, and I want to please Him no matter what.
And then, there was the problem of the non-Christian counsel given by unconverted psychiatrists. How could that be justified? When I took graduate work in practical theology, I seized the opportunity to enroll in courses in pastoral counseling taught by a practicing psychiatrist on the staff of a large university hospital. Now, at last, I told myself, I shall get the real inside dope.
But by the end of the second semester I was convinced that he knew no more about counseling than the men in his class almost all were pastors of churches -and we were confused! He had a thorough knowledge of Freudian doctrine, to be sure, which he zealously taught us. Gradually I drifted into hit-or-miss patterns of counseling growing out of on-the-spot applications of scriptural exhortations as I remembered them. Surprisingly, I became a more successful counselor than ever. Of course, age and experience might have accounted for some of the difference.
Yet, I could not help but notice that the more directive I became simply telling counselees what God required of them , the more people were helped. Spelling out and getting commitments to biblical patterns of behavior after an acknowledgment of and repentance for sin seemed to bring relief and results.
Facing up to people and honestly talking over issues before they grew out of proportion seemed to be important behavior for me as a pastor, in view of Matthew , 24 and Matthew As this worked well for me in most instances, in counseling I began to advise others to do the same and saw some persons helped even more.
Series: Jay Adams Library
But while these and other more biblical goals and methods began to emerge in haphazard fashion, I was still a very confused counselor. Then, suddenly, I was forced to face the whole problem in a much more definitive way. I was asked to teach practical theology at Westminster Theological Seminary. One of the courses I was assigned was Poimenics the shepherding work of the pastor. As part of this course, I was expected to teach the basic theory of pastoral counseling.
I had less than a year to think through the problem and prepare my lectures. Where would I begin?
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In desperation I began to exegete every passage I felt had any bearing on the subject. It was not long before I found I had taken on a mammoth task. The Bible, I discovered, says much about counseling people with personal problems. Such difficult questions as the relationship of madness to demon possession intruded themselves.
I began to wonder about the dynamics behind the psychosomatic effects of guilt seemingly portrayed in Psalms 31, 38 and Further, James seemed to confirm the importance of confession of sin, as well as the use of medicine, in the healing of some physical illnesses. James seemed to say that patients should at least be asked to consider whether some of their difficulties might stem from sin. As a matter of fact, the question soon became does not James speak explicitly about psychosomatic sickness?
Not very long afterward, I found myself asking, "Is much of what is called mental illness, illness at all? This question arose primarily from noticing that while the Bible describes homosexuality and drunkenness as sins, most of the mental health literature called them sicknesses or diseases. That much seemed clear. Extending this thought was only natural. One could not help asking, could the books be wrong in similarly misclassifying other problems like depression or neurosis or even psychosis, as sickness? When this sort of psychiatric heresy began to rattle around in my head, I remembered the name of a man whose works a Christian psychologist had once mentioned to me.
That man was O. Hobart Mowrer. These books astounded me. Mowrer had gone far beyond my own thinking.
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He was flatly challenging the very existence of institutionalized psychiatry. He stated outrightly that he believed the current psychiatric dogmas were false.
He cited evidence to demonstrate that psychiatry largely had failed. I corresponded with Mowrer over certain points. In that correspondence Mowrer invited me to participate in his Eli Lilly Fellowship program at the University of Illinois, where he is Research Professor of Psychology.
I went to the University of Illinois, where I worked under Mowrer during the summer session. That was an unforgettable experience for which I shall always be grateful. Getting away from all else and concentrating on the question of counseling for two months was exactly what I needed. During the summer of we worked in two state mental institutions, one at Kankakee, Illinois, and the other at Galesburg, Illinois.
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In these two mental institutions, we conducted group therapy with Mowrer for seven hours a day. Mowrer urged people to confess their wrongs not to God, but to others whom they had wronged and to make restitution wherever possible. Mowrer is not a Christian. He is not even a theist, and we debated the issue of humanism all summer.
During that time I made a study of the principal biblical data on the subject of counseling, with special reference to what Scripture says about conscience. First, I discovered why the large majority of people in mental institutions are there. Spending so much time with such persons afforded the opportunity to get to know and understand them. To put it simply, they were there because of their unforgiven and unaltered sinful behavior.
Secondly, the whole experience drove me back to the Bible to ask once again, What do the Scriptures say about such people and the solution to their problems? In this book Mowrer, a noted research psychologist who had been honored with the Presidency of the American Psychological Association for his breakthrough in learning theory, challenged the entire field of psychiatry, declaring it a failure, and sought to refute its fundamental Freudian presuppositions. Boldly he threw down the gauntlet to conservative Christians as well.
He asked: Has Evangelical religion sold its birthright for a mess of psychological pottage? He showed how this model removed responsibility from the counselee. Since one is not considered blameworthy for catching Asian Flu, his family treats him with sympathetic understanding, and others make allowances for him. He was invaded from without. Moreover, he must helplessly rely on experts to help him get well. Mowrer rightly maintained that the Medical Model took away the sense of personal responsibility.
As a result, psychotherapy became a search into the past to find others parents, the church, society, grandmother on whom to place the blame. Therapy consists of siding against the too-strict Super-ego conscience which these culprits have socialized into the poor sick victim. In contrast, Mowrer antithetically proposed a Moral Model of responsibility. He suffers from real guilt, not guilt feelings false guilt. The basic irregularity is not emotional, but behavioral.
He is not a victim of his conscience, but a violator of it. He must stop blaming others and accept responsibility for his own poor behavior. Problems may be solved, not by ventilation of feelings, but rather by confession of sin. From my protracted involvement with the inmates of the mental institutions at Kankakee and Galesburg, I was convinced that most of them were there, as I said, not because they were sick, but because they were sinful. In counseling sessions, we discovered with astonishing consistency that the main problems people were having were of their own making.
Others grandmother, et al. Some had written bad checks, some had become entangled in the consequences of immorality, others had cheated on income tax, and so on. Many had fled to the institution to escape the consequences of their wrong doing. A number had sought to avoid the responsibility of difficult decisions. Fletcher; Hardcover Unavailable. An introduction to pastoral counselling for social workers, the clergy, and others ; Kathleen J. Heasman; Unknown Binding Unavailable.
An introduction to religious counseling: a Christian humanistic approach ; Richard P. Vaughan; Unknown Binding Unavailable.
- Competent to Counsel: Introduction to Nouthetic Counseling?
- How to Help People Change;
- The Irreplaceable Man.
- Biblical Counseling Collection (27 vols.);
McAllister; Hardcover Unavailable. Norman Wright; Hardcover Unavailable. A Psychology for Preaching ; Edgar Newman. Jackson; Paperback Unavailable. Stone, William M. Gilbert, Raymondt. In Wisdom and Grace ; Raymond J. Keeping Ex-Offenders Free! Wise, John E. Couture, Rodney J. Pastoral Care in Hospitals ; Neville A. Pastoral Care of the Handicapped ; Roy E.